Surgeons at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston have successfully performed the first penis transplant in the United States. The surgery was performed on a Massachusetts man whose penis was removed several years ago to prevent his penile cancer from spreading. Two penis transplants have previously been performed worldwide: one, in China, failed in 2006, but one in South Africa in 2014 succeeded, with the recipient later fathering a child. Although the procedure is still highly experimental, doctors at Johns Hopkins plan to develop the procedure, which will benefit the numerous military veterans who sustain genitourinary injuries in combat. Challenges associated with the transplant include finding compatible donors, immune rejection, and the long-term side effects caused by immunosuppressant medications. Despite these challenges, the procedure has great potential to improve the quality of life of patients in need of a transplant. This surgery comes soon after the first uterus transplant performed in the United States failed.